Cannula (in CPB)
A flexible tube which can be inserted into a cavity, usually by means of a
trocar filling its lumen; after insertion of the cannula, the trocar is
withdrawn and the cannula remains as a channel for the transport of fluid.
Passage of a catheter into the heart through a blood vessel leading to the
heart for the purpose of measuring intra-cardiac pressure abnormalities,
obtaining cardiac blood samples, and/or imaging cardiac structures by
injection of radio-opaque dye.
A measure of cardiac function that accounts for body size. It is calculated
by dividing the cardiac output by the body surface area. An average adult's
cardiac index ranges from 2.8-3.6 liters per minute.
Death due to cardiac cause.
Cardiac Output (CO)
CO is the primary indicator of cardiac function. It is the volume of blood
ejected from the left ventricle per minute. CO is calculated by multiplying
stroke volume by heart rate. An average adult's CO is 5.6 liters per minute.
Failure to maintain blood supply to the tissues because of inadequate
cardiac output, such as may be caused in myocardial infarction.
A general diagnostic term designating primary myocardial disease.
1. Paralysis of the heart. 2. An elective temporary stopping of cardiac
activity by injection of chemicals, selective hypothermia, or electrical
Relating to the heart and lungs.
Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB)
The procedure that enables the blood to bypass the heart and lungs so
that the surgical field is relatively dry and motionless. CPB involves the
temporary substitution of a pump oxygenator for the heart and lungs to
1. Surgical opening in the heart. 2. Component of extracorporeal circuit
serving as a reservoir for blood.
A clot of blood within one of the heart's chambers.
Relating to the heart and the blood vessels or the circulation.
The pair of blood vessels that arise from the aorta into the cranial
cavity and provide the majority of bloodflow to the brain.
A hollow, flexible tube that is used to withdraw or instill fluids. The
tubes used to deliver cardioplegia solutions are usually considered
CCU (Coronary Care Unit)
Central Venous Pressure
The pressure in the right atrium, so called because all systemic veins drain
into the right atrium.
Travel of gas or particulate matter through an artery to the brain.
The result of rupture of sclerosed or diseased blood vessel or aneurysm
in the brain. Often associated with high blood pressure.
Macroscopic area of cerebral necrosis caused by sudden severe reduction
in blood flow to the brain. Cerebral infarction is a stroke caused by blood
vessel occlusion (as opposed to blood vessel rupture).
Insufficient blood flow to the brain due to obstruction of circulation.
Prolonged or severe ischemia will cause permanent brain injury (stroke).
Blood flow to the brain. Cerebral perfusion is directly related to mean
arterial pressure and inversely related to cerebral vascular resistance.
Disease (usually atherosclerosis) of the cervical or intracranial blood
CHD (Congenital Heart Disease)
Strands of tendon that anchor the cusps of the mitral and tricuspid
valves to the papillary muscles of the ventricles, preventing prolapse of
the valves into the atria during ventricular contraction.
Movement in regular or circuitous course, as the movement of the blood
through the heart and blood vessels. Includes collateral (compensatory),
coronary, pulmonary (lesser), and systemic (greater or peripheral).
1. To convert a fluid or a substance in solution into a solid or gel. 2.
To clot; to curdle; to change from a liquid to a solid or gel.
Concomitant but unrelated pathologic or disease process usually used to
indicate coexistence of two or more disease processes.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood.
Encircling in the manner of a crown; especially to the arteries of the
heart, and by extension, to pathologic involvement of them.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Vein or artery grafted surgically to permit blood to travel from the
aorta to a branch of the coronary artery at a point past an obstruction.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Although a number of disease processes other than atherosclerosis can
involve coronary arteries, in this guideline the term CAD refers to the
atherosclerotic narrowing of the major epicardial coronary arteries.
The opening into the right atrium to which the veins of the left
coronary circulation drain.
Narrowing or constriction of any arteries, orifices or chambers leading
into or from the heart.
Blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel of the heart.
CPK (Creatine Phosphokinase)
An enzyme important in muscle contraction that is elevated in plasma
following myocardial infarctions.
CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)
The mixing of a donor's blood with a potential recipient's blood to test for
Cx (Circumflex Artery [circ])
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