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The period from the start of anesthesia to the establishment of a depth of anesthesia adequate for a surgical procedure.

Below another structure.

Influencing the contractility of muscular tissue.

Between two structures.

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP)
Use of a balloon attached to a catheter inserted through the femoral artery into the descending thoracic aorta for producing alternating inflation and deflation during diastole and systole, respectively.

Intra-Coronary Stenting
Use of a prosthetic metal device to provide and maintain an enlarged coronary lumen at the site of an obstructive atherosclerotic plaque.

Insertion of a tubular device into a canal, hollow organ, or cavity.

Deficiency of blood to a tissue or organ in the body due to obstruction or constriction of arteries, thereby threatening the viability of that tissue or organ. In cardiac surgery ischemia is of concern mostly with regard to the heart (myocardial ischemia).

Left Atrium
The upper left cardiac chamber that receives blood from the pulmonary veins and delivers blood to the left ventricle.

LAD (Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery)

1. On the side. 2. Farther from the median or midsagittal plane. 3. To the side.

LIMA (Left Internal Mammary Artery)

The space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube.

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